It is common knowledge that US President Donald Trump's administration is divided into two camps – the hawks and the doves. Competition is rife between these two camps to win Trump's ear. Most political experts believe Trump is neither a hawk nor a dove. He doesn't have a strong political ideology. He governs the US like a dealmaker because of his business background. America's tough new policy towards China shows the hawks have won Trump's ear. A hawk is a large bird that catches small birds and animals for food. A dove is a bird with a small head that eats seeds and fruit. It is similar to a pigeon.
In political terms, a hawk is a person who supports an aggressive or warlike foreign policy. A dove prefers peaceful policies that produce compromise in dealing with other countries. The word "rife" means something that is widespread or common in an unpleasant way. The expression "win someone's ear" means to get a person, usually a powerful person, to listen to you. US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo is among the most hawkish towards China. He recently gave several extremely hawkish speeches that criticized China's human rights record, theft of US intellectual property, and sovereignty claim over the South China Sea. US Trade Representative Robert Lighthizer and trade and economic adviser to Trump Peter Navarro are also hawks.
But unlike Pompeo, who is a hawk on foreign policy, Lighthizer and Navarro are hawks on trade with China. They want China to open its market in the same way the US has opened its market to China. John Bolton, who was the White House national security advisor, was so hawkish, especially against Iran and China, that Trump fired him. Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin and Commerce Secretary Wilbur Ross are considered doves on trade with China. But it seems they have lost the ear of Trump, who has become more hardline against China because of the coronavirus and also because he believes it will help him get re-elected.
眾所周知，美國總統唐納德‧特朗普的行政機關分為兩大陣營：鷹派（hawks）與鴿派（doves）。為了要讓特朗普聽其所言（win Trump's ear），這兩大陣營的競爭很猖獗（rife）。大部份的政治專家都相信，特朗普既非鷹（hawk），亦非鴿（dove）；他沒有很強的政治思想。因着他從商的背景，他像一個交易人般管治美國。美國對於中國的強硬新政策，顯示鷹派（hawks）之言得到了特朗普的採納（won Trump's ear）。A hawk就是捕捉小鳥和小動物為食的鷹。A dove就是鳥頭很細、以種子和果實為糧食的鴿子，牠跟pigeon相似。
在政治層面上，a hawk就是支持較進取又或好戰的外交政策；a dove則是偏好和平的政策，主張與其他國家交手時盡量達成妥協的方案。Rife是指某事很普遍、蔓延又或猖獗。習語“win someone's ear”意即爭取到某人，通常是有權力的人，聽從你的建議。對於中國，美國國務卿米高‧蓬佩奧就是最鷹派（hawkish）的人物之一。他最近就發表了幾個最為鷹派（hawkish）的演說，批評中國的人權紀錄、竊取美國知識產權，及其對南中國海的主權聲索。美國貿易代表羅拔‧萊特希澤，以及貿易及經濟顧問彼得‧納瓦羅，同樣是鷹派（hawks）人物。然而，不像蓬佩奧般，是外交政策上的鷹派（hawk），萊特希澤與納瓦羅是與中國貿易方面的鷹派（hawks）。他們希望中國開放其市場，一如美國向中國開放其市場。前白宮國家安全顧問約翰‧波頓也是鷹派，尤其是對於伊朗及中國，鷹派（hawkish）得令特朗普要炒掉他。財政部長史蒂芬‧勞欽，以及商務部長威爾伯‧羅斯，在對華貿易上則被視為鴿派（doves）。但他們的進言似乎都未為特朗普所聽信（lost the ear of Trump），因着新冠肺炎疫情，也因為相信這有助他成功連任，特朗普現在對中國已然更為強硬。 中譯：七刻
Michael Chugani 褚簡寧